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Here researchers of the ISS report regularly on their latest results.

September, 2018

Job-related further training is often recommended to employees who want to develop professionally. This is illustrated, for example, by the Federal Ministry of Education’s programme "Aufstieg durch Bildung [Advancement through Education]". A study by ISS researcher Christian Ebner and Martin Ehlert (Social Science Research Center Berlin) has now examined whether individual participation in further training has a positive effect on the professional careers of employed persons in Germany.

The effects of so-called "non-formal" further training activities were analyzed. These activities include the many training courses, which are usually relatively short and do not lead to recognised educational qualifications. This includes, for example, software or language courses, presentation training and much more. Non-formal further training makes up the majority of employees’ learning activities. While there are clear indications of career improvements with regards to the much rarer formal further training (e.g. a “Meister” degree following an apprenticeship), the findings on the topic of non-formal further training are anything but clear.

Possible career mobility due to non-formal further training was examined by analyzing employees’ changes of occupation, firm changes, improvements and deterioration in the income hierarchy as well as becoming labour market inactive (e.g. unemployment). The empirical analyses were based on data from the National Education Panel (NEPS). The NEPS addresses educational processes, competencies and returns over the entire life span. The starting cohort 6 analysed here is a sample of the cohorts born 1944-1986 in Germany. The authors use the seven panel waves of 2009-2016, as detailed information on non-formal training courses is available here.

The results show that further training courses do not function as a stepping stone. Rather, it became apparent that employed persons who participate in further training courses tend to remain in their jobs. Participation in further training thus stabilizes employment careers. This means that non-formal further training has the function of a "safety net" and counteracts downward mobility and labour market inactivity. However, as a result of non-formal further training, there are also fewer career advancements, fewer company and fewer career changes.

Juli, 2018

Seit der Jahrtausendwende wurden über 2.400 Genossenschaften neu gegründet, so dass heute fast 8.000 Unternehmen in der Rechtsform der Genossenschaften in Deutschland existieren. Trotzdem hat sich die Gesamtzahl der Genossenschaften seit 1970 nahezu halbiert, während sich gleichzeitig die Anzahl der Mitgliedschaften fast verdoppelt hat. Dieser Gesamtrückgang der Unternehmensanzahl trotz der vielen Neugründungen ist keineswegs Insolvenzen geschuldet – im Gegenteil gelten die Genossenschaften zu Recht als besonders insolvenzsicher. Insbesondere Fusionen im kreditgenossenschaftlichen Bereich haben vielfach zu vergleichsweise großen genossenschaftlichen Unternehmen geführt. Trotzdem gilt dort wie auch im gesamten Genossenschaftssektor weiterhin die regionale Verankerung und Nähe zu Mitgliedern und Kunden als Teil der Marke.

Die Neugründungen seit der Jahrtausendwende stärken den Genossenschaftssektor. Interessanterweise wählten weitaus die meisten Genossenschaftsgründer diese Rechtsform, um neue Geschäftsmodelle und -bereiche zu besetzen. Die traditionell mit Genossenschaften besetzten Wirtschaftszweige wie die Kreditwirtschaft, die Landwirtschaft, der Handel, das Handwerk oder das Wohnen spielen bei den Neugründungen eher eine untergeordnete Rolle. Die meisten Neugründungen sind bei den Energiegenossenschaften zu finden, aber auch Ärzte- und Sozialgenossenschaften sowie weitere gemeinwesenorientierte Genossenschaften stoßen in neue genossenschaftliche Geschäftsgebiete vor.

Dieser für Genossenschaften so bezeichnete Neugründungsboom war 2014 Anlass für eine Studie zu den Potenzialen und Hemmnissen der unternehmerischen Tätigkeit in der Rechtsform der Genossenschaft, die von den ISS-Forschern Johannes Blome Drees, Philipp Degens und Clemens Schimmele zusammen mit Mitarbeitern der Unternehmensberatung Kienbaum durchgeführt wurde. Zu prüfen war u.a., ob die 2006 durchgeführte Genossenschaftsrechtsnovelle, die viele Gründungserleichterungen für kleine Initiativen vorsieht, tatsächlich zur Gründung neuer Genossenschaften führte. Die Studie konnte belegen, dass die neuen Rechtsvorschriften nicht für alle kooperativ angelegten Projekte einen geeigneten Rechtsrahmen vorgeben. Im Ergebnis wurde das Genossenschaftsgesetz weiter novelliert.

Kennzeichen vieler Neugründungen ist häufig ein sehr hohes zivilgesellschaftliches Engagement der Mitglieder, um die Ziele ihres gemeinschaftlichen Projektes zu erreichen. Geschätzt wird an Genossenschaften ihre bedarfswirtschaftliche Ausrichtung – es wird nicht für einen anonymen Markt produziert, sondern orientiert am Bedarf der Mitglieder – sowie die personenbezogene Demokratie. Hinzu kommt die im Genossenschaftsmitglied angelegte Identität der Eigentümer mit den Kunden, Lieferanten oder im Fall der Produktivgenossenschaften mit den Arbeitnehmern. Damit entsprechen Genossenschaften in einem zentralen Aspekt dem, was heute unter Begriffen wie Prosuming, kollaborativer Konsum oder Ko-Produktion den Wandel der Verbraucherrolle kennzeichnet. Bewährte Beispiele für diese Phänomene findet man in der Tradition der Konsum- oder Erzeuger-Verbraucher-Genossenschaften, neu hinzu kommen Formen wie die Solidarische Landwirtschaft oder besondere Wohnprojekte, zum Teil mit Möglichkeiten des gemeinsamen Arbeitens. Digitale Plattformen in genossenschaftlicher Hand könnten dafür sorgen, dass die Erträge der Plattformbetreiber den Nutzern zugutekommen. Anders als bei den sich in den letzten Jahren etablierenden großen Plattformen des Teilen (Uber oder Airbnb) verbleiben bei genossenschaftlichen Unternehmen die Erträge im genossenschaftlichen Unternehmen oder werden an die Mitglieder und damit an die Nutzer ausgeschüttet.


June 2018

Access to housing is known to play a crucial role for the integration and participation of immigrants, not only since the current refugee crisis. Ethnic discrimination on the housing market is therefore an important form of disadvantage. Empirical proof is often difficult, however, as diverse arguments can be brought forward to justify why a particular person without migration background was preferred. For this reason, researchers have turned to so-called audit studies which are an experimental method to provide evidence for discrimination. Such studies direct fictitious applications that differ only in the characteristic of interest (e.g., ethnic background) towards the same openings. Differing responses depending on ethnic background can then be interpreted as discrimination.

In a recently published study, ISS researcher Clemens Kroneberg and his collaborators Andreas Horr (LIfBi, Bamberg) and Christian Hunkler (MEA, Munich) had callers in Mannheim and Ludwigshafen respond to more than 800 apartment openings in newspapers to arrange a viewing appointment over the phone. The aim of the study was not only to examine the extent of ethnic discrimination but also to learn about the underlying mechanisms. Results show that there was no discrimination against callers with Turkish names. However, callers with both a Turkish name and accent were invited to view apartments significantly less often (a difference of 14 percentage points). This disadvantage largely disappeared when callers stated as part of their first sentence that they were moving to the city for job-related reasons. This information about steady employment can be assumed to signal more steady employment and greater financial reliability. Thus, rather than being due to non-acceptance of foreigners per se, the observed discrimination seems to largely reflect landlords’ beliefs about the average financial reliability of different ethnic groups (so-called statistical discrimination). This mechanism can be expected to be even more relevant in housing markets like Cologne or Munich where landlords face an even greater surplus demand.

May 2018

The most recent economic crisis of 2007/2008 has hit young adults hard through severe labor market insecurities and high unemployment rates in many countries. This has raised concerns of persisting disadvantages for a “lost generation”. In particular, there is the concern that young people at the transition from education into employment are vulnerable to high unemployment around them and may suffer negative long-term consequences of economic adversity for their health.

ISS researchers Philipp Lersch, Marita Jacob and Karsten Hank examined whether this concern is warranted in a recently published study. For their analysis, they used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), which interviews the same individuals repeatedly for many years. The authors examined how regional variation in federal state-level unemployment rates when individuals left education between 1992 and 2015 in West Germany related to individuals’ self-rated health later on up to age 49.

The authors found that, first, young adults leaving education in federal states with high unemployment have initially better health compared to leaving education in states with low unemployment. This counterintuitive result has been repeatedly found by researchers for other countries. One explanation is that economic downturns may lead to less traffic accidents, less pollution and less work stress. Second, the authors found that individual unemployment when leaving education is associated with initially poorer health, regardless of the state-level unemployment rate. This health disadvantage persists as individuals age. Third, those who were unemployed in a high-unemployment context when leaving education are particularly disadvantaged. Their health declines more over time compared to those from low-unemployment contexts.

Thus, in combination with being unemployed themselves, young people who finish education and who experience high unemployment in their environment similar to the recent economic crisis are likely to suffer from worse health in the long run.

April 2018

Potential benefits and risks of mothers’ employment for child development are the subject of heated scientific and public debate. By increasing family income, working mothers may foster development. However, this may come at the cost of reducing the quality and quantity of parent-child interactions that are crucial for small children. In a recent study, ISS researcher Michael Kühhirt and Markus Klein from the University of Strathclyde found that children with similar family background, develop comparable vocabulary and reasoning abilities even if their mothers’ work histories in the first 5 years after birth differ vastly. Therefore, both exaggerated hopes and fears with regard to the consequences of mothers’ employment for children may be unfounded, at least with regard to early language acquisition and cognitive ability.

These results are based on 2,200 children of the Growing Up in Scotland study, who were followed from roughly 10 months after birth until around their fifth birthday. As a measure of vocabulary at age 5, children named objects from a picture booklet. Reasoning ability at age 5 was assessed by requiring children to find common aspects between a given picture and objects displayed in a picture book. Mothers’ employment history and other important characteristics were obtained through annually repeated surveys in the five years after birth.

The study was novel in that it looked at the relation of mothers’ employment with children’s development not only at one particular time point but that it compared the effects of different employment patterns over time. This is important because any impact of maternal employment is likely to unfold only after a longer period of exposure. However, differences in the developmental outcomes at age 5, for the most part, seem to be driven by characteristics influencing maternal employment decisions in the first five years after birth, such as mothers’ education and family structure. While the benefits of a working mother may be limited for children, at least when it comes to the cognitive measures under study here, that the study also found no evidence for harmful effects, is an important implication given universal attempts to increase the share of working mothers. While this is the case at the population level, future research may look at the effect of early maternal employment histories on developmental outcomes among different subgroups. 

March 2018

Economic psychology examines psychological mechanisms that underlie the economic behavior of consumers and households. So far, numerous studies have shown that the payment mode (e.g., cash vs. credit card) influences consumer behavior – in terms of how much people spend and what they buy. Despite the proliferation of new payment technologies, little is known about the nuances of digital payment modes and their characteristics.

ISS researchers Rufina Gafeeva and Erik Hölzl with Holger Roschk of the Alpen-Adria University Klagenfurt investigated in a recent study how the transformation of payment modes affects consumers. Results show that the recall accuracy of the amount spent varies according to the mode of payment: cash, prepaid card or multifunctional card.

Data were gathered at two separate time points in cafeterias at a German university - prior to as well as following the introduction of a multifunctional card which offers not only a payment function but also a public transport ticket, identification and other information functions. Shortly after paying at the cafeteria cashier, a total of 496 students were asked to recall the amount spent and the payment mode used and to answer further control questions. The recall accuracy of the amount spent was lower for both prepaid cards and multifunctional cards than for cash payments. There was no significant difference between the prepaid card and the multifunctional card; rather, the individual usage patterns played a crucial role: Those who often used the non-payment functions of such cards had a less accurate recall.

The results are relevant for the financial wellbeing of consumers because an accurate recall of past spending has an effect on the willingness to spend money in the future. Therefore, designs that separate the payment function from other functions or that visualize the act of spending money (for instance, through immediate payment information or transaction summaries) may increase consumers’ awareness for spending.

February, 2018

Often people soon know if (and how much) they are romantically or sexually attracted to another person. However, they are by no means aware of the outstanding cognitive effort required to integrate the many different characteristics of possible mates into a holistic judgment, which may also differ across different contexts of mating – such as a one night stand or a lifelong relationship. Previous studies have mainly tested the attractiveness of individual physical or personality traits, while it largely remained unexplored how such different characteristics interact in specific contexts.

ISS researchers Daniel Ehlebracht and Detlef Fetchenhauer together with Olga Stavrova from the University of Tilburg and Daniel Farrelly from the University of Worcester addressed to this question. In particular, it was investigated whether prosociality and physical attractiveness can under certain circumstances reinforce each other's effects on overall desirability. In two studies Cologne students were shown short videos of Dutch students, whose attractiveness they should either evaluate for a short-term or long-term relationship. For each of the individuals shown, the judges received randomized information on how the person behaved in an economic game in which they could prove their altruism or their trustworthiness. As expected, physical attractiveness had a greater impact on the overall evaluation in the short-term context than in the long-term context, while prosocial behavior played a greater role in the long-term context than in the short-term context. In addition, men’s preferences turned out to be more specific regarding the temporal context of mate choice than women’s preferences. In other words, the relative impact of physical attractiveness and trustworthiness on the overall evaluation differed more strongly between the two contexts with male than was the case with female judges. In addition, in both studies physical attractiveness and prosociality mutually reinforced each other in their impact on the overall judgment when they occurred together, albeit only in the long-term mate choice context. This suggests that a good character can actually increase the attractiveness as a long-term partner significantly – but especially in people who are already physically attractive anyway.

January, 2018

Sociologists have been investigating the intergenerational transmission of social inequalities (such as educational opportunities) for a long time now. Along the same lines, demographers have shown that, for example, parents’ fertility behaviors or divorce risks affect their children’s related outcomes. However, barely any research has been conducted yet investigating whether the quality of parent-child relationships in the older generation is transmitted to the younger generation in a family.

ISS researcher Karsten Hank and his colleagues Veronika Salzburger and Merril Silverstein assessed this issue in a study using data from the German Family Panel (pairfam). The authors exploited pairfam’s so called multi-actor design, which allowed them to gather information about three generations in the same family: the youngest generation of children, aged 16-18 at the time of the interview, reported about the quality of their relationship to the middle generation, whose members reported about their relationship to the oldest generation of parents. Three specific dimensions of relationship quality were considered: emotional closeness, frequency of contact, and ambivalence (that is, the simultaneous occurrence of closeness and conflicts).

The study shows that greater emotional closeness, more frequent conflicts and stronger ambivalence between parents and children in older generation tends to translate into a similar pattern of parent-child relations in the family’s younger generation. The authors interpret this finding as indication of intergenerational transmission of relationship quality within families. Further analyses suggest that this kind of transmission more strongly originates from grandfather than from grandmother ties.

Whereas these gender specific findings call for further investigation, the study overall suggests that a comprehensive understanding of parent-child relationships requires a perspective that conceptualizes families as a complex multigenerational system.

December, 2017

Against the backdrop of increasing life expectancy, understanding factors that predict the maintenance of cognitive functioning into old age has become increasingly relevant. Examples of cognitive functions include memory, reasoning, and the speed at which information can be processed. In general, physical as well as social and intellectual activities are viewed as beneficial for maintaining these functions. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the opportunities to engage in these activities are partially determined by one's residential neighborhood.

For that reason, ISS-researchers Jonathan Wörn and Lea Ellwardt– together with colleagues from Amsterdam and Oslo – examined whether the socioeconomic status and the degree of urbanity of a residential neighborhood are associated with the cognitive functioning of its older inhabitants.

To this end, the researchers used information on the average income and the density of residential and business addresses of 63 Dutch neighborhoods. This information was connected to data from the LASA Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam on 985 older inhabitants from these neighborhoods in order to analyze how different cognitive functions of 65- to 88-year-olds develop within 6 years.

The study found that older adults from neighborhoods with a higher average income performed better in two out of the four examined cognitive functions. However, the differences between neighborhoods were not caused by the neighborhoods themselves; rather, differences were explained by the higher education and higher income of individuals who lived in these neighborhoods. Both of these factors are positively associated with cognitive functioning and increase the likelihood to live in a neighborhood with an overall higher average income.

Additionally, older adults in more urbanized neighborhoods performed better on cognitive tests. The researchers explained that daily requirements in more urbanized neighborhoods (e.g. the multitude of information that has to be processed when moving in busy traffic) constitute a cognitive training on a day-to-day basis. However, this effect may reverse into poorer cognitive functioning if older adults in very highly urbanized neighborhoods feel overtaxed by the demands of their neighborhood.

Since the decline of cognitive functions in the observed period was independent of the neighborhood characteristics under consideration, the researchers concluded that the differences between older adults in more and less urbanized neighborhoods already came about earlier in life.

All in all, the observed differences between neighborhoods were rather small. Thus, the researchers recommend that measures to maintain the cognitive functioning of older adults should cater to the needs of individuals.


November, 2017

Can young people be discouraged from criminal offending by a general deterrent effect of punishment? Previous research suggests that this is the case for young people’s perceptions of sanction risks. Social scientists explain this by means of a decision process, which considers the perceived risk and intensity of punishment (as costs) and the assets of criminal offending (as benefits). When the cost outweigh the benefits, young people will decide against criminal offending. Thus, an increased perception of sanction risks has a deterrent effect on behavior. However, a reversed phenomenon implies that young people learn to make realistic assumption about sanction risks because of previous criminal behavior. Hence, personal experience leads to a decrease in the perception of sanction risks. However, which effect is dominant: a deterrence effect or an experiential effect?

ISS researcher Daniel Seddig and his colleagues Helmut Hirtenlehner (University of Linz) and Jost Reinecke (University of Bielefeld) examined this question in a study based on survey data from 1,950 adolescents in Duisburg. Results from statistical analyses indicate the dominance of an experiential effect. A systematic deterrent effect could not be verified.

Simple (criminal) behaviors are often carried out automatically and spontaneously. Therefore, expectations about the deterrent impact of threats of sanctions should not be exaggerated. However, the study could not exclude the possibility that small (sub-) groups of people respond to sanction risks.